What is Black Box Testing,Types,Techniques ,Advantages and Disadvantages?

Black box testing

Black box testing is the Software testing method which is used to test the application without knowing the internal structure of code or program.

It is also known as Specifications based testing. Independent Testers usually performs this type of testing during the software testing life cycle.Testers knows about the input and expected output’s of the software and they do not aware of how the software or application actually processing the input requests & giving the outputs.

Types of Black Box Testing Techniques

Boundary Value Analysis
Equivalence Class Partitioning
Decision Table testing
Cause-Effect Graphing Technique
Error Guessing
All-pairs testing

Black Box Techniques

Equivalence Class Partitioning

The equivalence class partition is the technique used for writing the test cases.This approach is use to reduce huge set of possible inputs to small number of effective inputs. This is done by dividing inputs into the classes and gets one value from each class.Such method is used when exhaustive testing is wanted & to avoid the redundancy of inputs.

Boundary Value Analysis 

Boundary Value Analysis is one of the black box techniques used to find the error in the boundaries of input values rather than the center of the input value range.Boundary Value Analysis is the next step of the Equivalence class in which all test cases are designed at the boundary of the Equivalence class.

The BVA technique comes under the Stress and Negative Testing.This technique is an easy, quick and brilliant way to observe any input errors that might occur to interrupt the functionality of a program.

BVA is the best approach in cases where the functionality of a software is based on numerous variables representing physical quantities and doesn’t fit well when it comes to Boolean Variables.

Decision Table testing

A decision table is used to deal with combinations of things (e.g. inputs).This technique is also referred to as a ’cause-effect’ table.It is more focused on business logic/rules.Decision tables are easier to understand and review than code, and have been used extensively and successfully to produce specifications for complex systems.

Cause-Effect Graphing Technique

Cause-Effect Graph shows the connection between a given outcome and all issues that manipulate the outcome graphically .It is a testing technique that aids in choosing the test cases that logically relate Causes (inputs) to Effects (outputs) to produce test cases.A “Cause” stands for an input condition that fetches about an internal change in the system. An “Effect” represents an output condition, a system transformation or a state resulting from a combination of causes.

Error Guessing

Error guessing is a testing technique on guessing the error which can prevail in the code.It is usually done after formal techniques are completed.It saves a lot of time because of the assumptions and guessing made by the experienced testers to find out the defects which otherwise won’t be able to find.Though Error guessing is one of the key techniques of testing, it does not provide a full coverage of the application and also cannot guarantee that the software has reached the expected quality benchmark.

All-pairs testing

In All pair testing,test cases are designed to execute all the possible discrete combinations of each pair of input parameters.All-pairs are also known as pairwise testing is a testing approach taken for testing the software using combinatoric method.It is very helpful for designing tests for the applications involving multiple parameters.

Advantages of Black box testing

  • Black box Tests are done from an end user’s point of view
  • It helps to expose any ambiguities or inconsistencies in the specifications
  • Tester is no need of having detailed functional knowledge of the system
  • Testing is applicable on higher levels of testing like System Testing, Acceptance testing.

Disadvantages of Black Box Testing

  • Without clear and concise specifications, test cases are hard to design
  • May leave some program paths/code untested
  • It is difficult to identify all possible inputs in limited testing time. So writing test cases is slow,difficult and Time consuming

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